Mooring equipment is also called “mooring device”. The equipment used when a ship is docked at a wharf, pontoon or other ship.
In addition to anchoring, ships need to be tied up with cables when they dock, dock and mooring buoy. All devices and machinery that ensure a ship can safely and reliably mooring are collectively referred to as mooring equipment.
Moorings equipment are used to tie ships to quays or to predetermined waters. Mooring equipment usually includes mooring lines, buoys, mooring wharfs, bollards, pilots, cable winches, and mooring machinery.
Moorings are usually located at the bow, stern, or side of the deck.
A general symmetrical arrangement so that both sides of the ship can dock simultaneously. Bollards are located at both ends of the ship, near the side. Wiper cutters and wiper holes should be positioned according to the bollard. The Panama Canal and other international waterways require ships to carry special streamers and streamers according to regulations. Cable winches should be installed near the forecastle and poop bulkheads so as not to obstruct passage of personnel and to make cable retracting easier.
Composition of mooring equipment
Additionally to the mooring cable, the mooring equipment consists of a cable pull device, cable guide device, mooring machinery, cable car and accessories.
1. Cable pull device
Bollards are provided on the fore-and-aft deck and midship deck for pulling up the cable during berthing and towing operations. The bollard is heavily stressed, so its base must be strong, and the deck near it must be reinforced.
Bollards can be cast or welded from steel plates. There are many types of bollards, such as the single bollard, double bollard, single-cross bollard, inclined double bollard, and horn bollard, etc. Ships of medium and large sizes mostly use double bollards.
2. Cable guide device
At the fore and aft of the ship as well as at both sides, cable guide devices are provided so that the cable can lead from the inboard to the outboard to the wharf or other mooring point in a particular direction, limit its position deviation, minimize the wear of the cable, and avoid the increase in stress caused by sharp bends.
3. Cable winch
The mooring winch, also called the mooring winch, is mainly used for collecting stranded cables. It is usually driven by a windlass drum. In addition, some large ships have a special mooring winch at the bow. Generally, the cable is twisted in the middle of the ship by the vice drum of the cargo winch. Some large ships are equipped with specially designed cable winches in the middle. Another mooring winch is located on the aft deck.
4. Cable car and accessories
Included are cable car, cable making, skimming cable, fender, rat-proof plate, and skimming device.
Marine fairlead refers to the chain guide wheel located between the chain drum and chain stopper, which allows the chain to retract smoothly and prevents friction with the drum’s upper mouth. It consists of a roller, bracket, and pin shaft with a concave chain groove. There are vertical, oblique, and horizontal types.
In addition to preventing friction between anchor chain and anchor chain bobbin, it can also correct the trend of anchor chain and prevent anchor chain from tipping. Large and medium ships are fitted with fairleads for boats, and deck anchor lips are no longer necessary. Instead of guide chain rollers, there are pawl chutes.
Mooring roller fairleads are positioned at the outlet of chain tube deck to restrict the movement direction of the chain, so that the chain passes perpendicularly through the sprocket axis. The marine fairlead shall be installed so that the chain will pass through the chain barrel without friction with the chain spool protruding from the deck.
Panama fairlead, also known as Panama Chock, are steel castings that are round or oval.
When the mooring line passes through it, the contact surface is shaped like an arc, thereby eliminating the cutting effect of the bulwark on the system and facilitating the smooth passage of the mooring pipa head.
Ships towing through the Panama Canal use Panama chock fairleads as closed mooring devices. The ship must be pulled by the locomotive on the shore when it passes through the canal. If the general cable guide is used, the cable will be easy to slip and wear when stressed since the water level of the lock differs so greatly from the shore level. Accordingly, the special cable guide hole should be configured in accordance with the Panama Canal Regulations. According to the installation position, there are two types of deck and bulwark pilot holes.
Installation Requirements And Inspection Methods For Marine Chock
The mooring equipment, like the current most popular steel plate welded structure or to fix steel welding, must meet quality requirements for welding. Castings for mooring equipment should be trimmed, and cracks at the joint of the casting box should be repaired. Casting surfaces should be free of sharp corners, sand holes, cracks, and other defects.
Welds shall conform to the drawing requirements, with no cracks, welding leakage, welding tumors, arc pits, or other defects. The cast steel parts of mooring equipment with a small number of cast steel parts should be directly welded to the hull structure during installation, and the welding requirements are the same as above. After installing the mooring equipment mentioned above, its installation position and quality should be checked.
Ship mooring bollard
Mooring bollards are bollards fixed to the deck or on the side of the wharf for mooring ropes. They are usually cast or welded from metal. Its base must be very firm since the product is subjected to a lot of force during use. Among them are single cross bollards, double cross bollards, vertical bollards, oblique vertical bollards, and claw-shaped bollards.
It is common practice to cover the top of the pile with a pile cap slightly larger than the pile body in order to prevent the cable from slipping off the pile. Bollards are usually installed on the bow, stern, as well as the left and right decks of ships.
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